Nonferrous metals are the basic materials and important strategic material for national economy, People's daily life and defense industry, scientific and technological development. The modernization of agriculture, industrial modernization, national defense and the modernization of science and technology are inseparable from non-ferrous metals. such as aircraft, missiles, rockets, satellites, Nonferrous metals nuclear submarines and other sophisticated weapons and atomic energy, most of the components or components required for cutting-edge technologies such as television, communications, radar, and electronic computers are made of light metals and metal in non-ferrous metals, and there is no such non-ferrous metals as nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, etc. Nonferrous metals The use of non-ferrous metals in certain uses, such as the power industry, is considerable. Now many countries in the world, especially the industrialized countries, compete to develop nonferrous metals industry and increase the strategic reserve of nonferrous metals.
Nowadays, nonferrous metals has become an important material basis for the development of national economy, science and technology and National defense, which is the key strategic resource to enhance the national comprehensive strength and guarantee the national security. As the first big country of nonferrous metal production, Nonferrous metals China has made great progress in the field of nonferrous metals research, especially in the development and utilization of complex low-grade nonferrous metals resources.
The narrow-sense non-ferrous metals are also called non ferrous metals, Nonferrous metals which are all metals, such as iron, manganese and chromium.
The generalized nonferrous metals also include nonferrous alloys. Nonferrous alloys are alloys consisting of one or several other elements in a non-ferrous metal matrix (usually greater than 50%).
Nonferrous metals refer to all metals, such as iron, chromium and manganese, Nonferrous metals three kinds of metals. In 1958, China included iron, chromium and manganese in ferrous metals, and 64 kinds of metals other than iron, chromium and manganese were added to non-ferrous metals. These 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, Palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, Germanium, rhenium, lanthanum, cerium, Praseodymium, ND , Samarium, Europium, gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium.
Historically, the materials used for production tools have been continuously improved and are closely related to the development of human society. Therefore, historians have used the material of utensils to mark the historical period, such as the Stone Age, the bronze, the iron and so on. By the end of 17th century by the human clear understanding and application of non-ferrous metals total 8 kinds. The Chinese nation has made significant contributions to the discovery and production of non-ferrous metals (see metallurgical history). Nonferrous metals After entering the 18th century, the rapid development of science and technology has promoted the discovery of many new non-ferrous metal elements. The above 64 kinds of nonferrous metals have been discovered in 18th century, in addition to 8 kinds of applications which were recognized before 17th century. 19th century discovered 39 kinds, enters 20th century, also discovers 4 kinds.
Nonferrous Metals usually refer to all metals except iron (sometimes removing manganese and chromium) and iron-based alloys. Non-ferrous metals can be classified into four categories:
1. Heavy metals: General density in 4.5g/cm3 above, such as copper, lead, zinc, etc.;
2. Light Metal: small density (0.53~4.5g/cm3), lively chemical properties, such as aluminum, magnesium and so on.
3. Precious metals: The Earth's crust content is small, Nonferrous metals the extraction difficulty, the price is high, the density is big, the chemical property is stable, such as gold, silver, platinum and so on;
4. Rare metals: such as tungsten, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, lanthanum, uranium and so on.