Nonferrous Metals usually refer to all metals except iron (sometimes removing manganese and chromium) and iron-based alloys. Non-ferrous metals can be classified into four categories:
1. Heavy metals: General density in 4.5g/cm3 above, such as copper, lead, zinc, etc.;
2. Light Metal: small density (0.53~4.5g/cm3), lively chemical properties, such as aluminum, magnesium and so on.
3. Precious metals: The Earth's crust content is small, Nonferrous metals the extraction difficulty, the price is high, the density is big, the chemical property is stable, such as gold, silver, platinum and so on;
4. Rare metals: such as tungsten, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, lanthanum, uranium and so on.
Nonferrous metals refer to all metals, such as iron, chromium and manganese, three kinds of metals. In 1958, China included iron, chromium and manganese in ferrous metals, and 64 kinds of metals other than iron, chromium and manganese were added to non-ferrous metals. These 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, Palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, germanium , Rhenium, lanthanum, Cerium, praseodymium, Neodymium, Samarium, Europium, gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium.
Historically, the materials used for production tools have been continuously improved and are closely related to the development of human society. Therefore, Nonferrous metals historians have used the material of utensils to mark the historical period, such as the Stone Age, the bronze, the iron and so on. By the end of 17th century by the human clear understanding and application of non-ferrous metals total 8 kinds. The Chinese nation has made significant contributions to the discovery and production of non-ferrous metals (see metallurgical history). Nonferrous metals After entering the 18th century, the rapid development of science and technology has promoted the discovery of many new non-ferrous metal elements. The above 64 kinds of nonferrous metals have been discovered in 18th century, in addition to 8 kinds of applications which were recognized before 17th century. 19th century discovered 39 kinds, enters 20th century, also discovers 4 kinds.
Energy, Nonferrous metals information technology and materials are called the three pillars of contemporary civilization. Nonferrous Metals and their alloys are important components of modern materials, which are closely related to energy and information technology. According to 1981 World statistics, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, gold, silver 8 kinds of non-ferrous metals production is only steel production (700 million tons) 5.4%, Nonferrous metals but its output value to reach more than 50% of steel output value. Nonferrous Metals and ferrous metals complement each other, together constitute a modern metal system.
Nonferrous metals are the basic materials and important strategic material for national economy, People's daily life and defense industry, scientific and technological development. The modernization of agriculture, Nonferrous metals industrial modernization, national defense and the modernization of science and technology are inseparable from non-ferrous metals. such as aircraft, missiles, rockets, satellites, Nonferrous metals nuclear submarines and other sophisticated weapons and atomic energy, most of the components or components required for cutting-edge technologies such as television, communications, radar, and electronic computers are made of light metals and metal in non-ferrous metals, and there is no such non-ferrous metals as nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, etc. The use of non-ferrous metals in certain uses, such as the power industry, is considerable. Now many countries in the world, especially the industrialized countries, compete to develop nonferrous metals industry and increase the strategic reserve of nonferrous metals. Nonferrous metals industry includes geological prospecting, mining, beneficiation, smelting and processing departments. In order to get 1 tons of non-ferrous metals, the ore is generally low in nonferrous metals, Nonferrous metals which are often mined into tons of minerals. So mine is the important foundation of developing nonferrous metal industry. In nonferrous metal ores, there are many kinds of metals symbiosis, so it is necessary to reasonably extract and recycle useful components and make comprehensive use of natural resources rationally.