Non-ferrous metals are all metals other than ferrous metals and their alloys.
Non-ferrous metals are the national economy, the people's daily life and the defense industry, science; in the non-ferrous metal mining, mineral processing, smelting, processing and recycling process; to good environmental protection; non-ferrous metals are mostly processed into the material, so how effective To
Non-ferrous metals are iron, chromium, manganese, all three metals other than metal. China in 1958, the iron, chromium, manganese included in the ferrous metals; and iron, chromium, manganese other than 64 kinds of metal included in the non-ferrous metals. Zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, and so on. Aluminum, tungsten, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, germanium, rhenium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium , Europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium
Historically, the materials used in the production tools have been improved, and it has a very close relationship with the development of human society. Therefore, Nonferrous metals historians have used the material of the objects to mark the historical period, such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and so on. To the end of the 17th century by the human clear understanding and application of a total of eight kinds of non-ferrous metals. The Chinese nation has made a significant contribution to the discovery and production of these non-ferrous metals (see Metallurgical History). After the 18th century, the rapid development of science and technology, Nonferrous metals contributed to the discovery of many new non-ferrous metal elements. The 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals in addition to the 17th century has been recognized before the application of eight, in the 18th century found a total of 13 species. 19th century found 39 species, Nonferrous metals into the 20th century, and found four kinds.
Energy, information technology and materials are known as the three pillars of contemporary civilization. Nonferrous metals and their alloys are an important part of modern materials, and energy and information technology is very close. According to the world data in 1981, the production of copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, Nonferrous metals gold and silver was only 5.4% of steel production (700 million tons), but its output value reached steel output above 50. Non-ferrous metals and ferrous metals complement each other, Nonferrous metals together constitute a modern metal material system.
Nonferrous metals are the basic materials and important strategic materials of the national economy, the people's daily life and the defense industry, the development of science and technology indispensable. Agricultural modernization, industrial modernization, national defense and science and technology modernization are inseparable from non-ferrous metals. Such as aircraft, missiles, rockets, satellites, Nonferrous metals nuclear submarines and other cutting-edge weapons and atomic energy, television, communications, radar, electronic computers and other cutting-edge technology required components or components are mostly non-ferrous metals in the light metal and olefins made of metal; , There is no nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, Nonferrous metals niobium and other non-ferrous metals also no alloy steel production. Non-ferrous metals in some uses (such as the power industry, etc.), the use is also considerable. Now many countries in the world, especially industrialized countries, competing to develop non-ferrous metals industry, increase the strategic reserve of non-ferrous metals. Nonferrous metals industry, including geological exploration, mining, mineral processing, smelting and processing and other departments. Nonferrous metals Ore content of non-ferrous metals are generally low, in order to get 1 ton of non-ferrous metals, often to be mined into 100 tons or more tons of ore. Therefore, the mine is an important foundation for the development of nonferrous metals industry. Nonferrous metals Non-ferrous metal ore is often a variety of metal symbiosis, it must be reasonable extraction and recovery of useful components, make a comprehensive utilization, in order to rational use of natural resources. Many kinds of rare metals, precious metals and sulfuric acid and other chemical products, are in the treatment of non-ferrous metal ore or intermediate products and slag, soot the process of recovery.
In the non-ferrous metal mining, mineral processing, smelting, processing and recycling process, a variety of extraction methods can be used. In the case of smelting, it is usually divided into pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and metallurgical metallurgy. Fire metallurgy generally has the ability to deal with concentrates, can use sulfur in the sulfur combustion heat, can be economically recovered precious metals, rare metals and other advantages;
Most of the non-ferrous metals are processed and used, so it is a very important question to how to produce the best performance of good and inexpensive non-ferrous materials in order to achieve the greatest social and economic benefits. With the development of science and technology and the development of national economy, non-ferrous metal materials in the quantity, variety, quality and cost, and so continue to put forward new requirements; not only require better performance of the structural materials, functional materials; and its chemical composition , Physical properties, organizational structure, crystal state, processing status, surface and dimensional accuracy and product reliability, Nonferrous metals stability and other requirements are getting higher and higher. In general, the production of non-ferrous metal materials is large-scale, continuous, automated, standardized direction, which requires high-precision, high reliability of the technology, equipment, control technology and finished product testing technology. Some new materials, such as semiconductor materials, composites, superconducting materials, new technologies such as powder metallurgy, surface treatment, etc. have been formed or are being developed into a new technology area.