Among the 107 known elements, there are different classification methods for the metals in each country. Some are divided into iron metal (ferrous Meta-ls) and non-ferrous metal (non-ferrous Metals) Two categories: iron and Ferroalloy, ferrous metal refers to ferrous and ferrous metals outside the iron. Some are divided into ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals two categories. Nonferrous metals refer to all metals, such as iron, Nonferrous metals chromium and manganese, three kinds of metals. In 1958, China included iron, chromium and manganese in ferrous metals, and 64 kinds of metals other than iron, chromium and manganese were added to non-ferrous metals. These 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, Palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, TA, ge , Rhenium, lanthanum, Cerium, praseodymium, Neodymium, Samarium, Europium, gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium.
Non-ferrous metals are mostly used after processing, so how to reasonably and effectively produce good performance, inexpensive non-ferrous materials to achieve the greatest social and economic benefits, is a very important issue. With the progress of science and technology and the development of national economy, Nonferrous metals for non-ferrous materials in quantity, variety, the quality and cost are constantly put forward new requirements, not only to provide better performance of structural materials, functional materials, but also to its chemical composition, physical properties, organization structure, Crystal State, processing state, surface and dimensional accuracy and product reliability, stability and other aspects of the higher requirements. In general, Nonferrous metals the production of non-ferrous materials is becoming large-scale, continuous, automation, standardization of the direction of development, which requires high-precision, high reliability of technology, equipment, control technology and finished product testing technology. Some new materials, such as semiconductor materials, composites, superconducting materials, new technologies such as powder metallurgy, surface treatment, etc. have been formed or are being developed into a technology field.
One of the characteristics of China's non-ferrous metal resources is the complex ore, and some of the lower grade, not only a variety of non-ferrous metals are often symbiotic together, and some iron ore also contains a large number of non-ferrous metals, Nonferrous metals such as Panzhihua iron ore contains a large number of vanadium, titanium, Baotou iron ore contains a large number of rare earth and niobium, so research suitable for China's resources characteristics of new technologies, processes, new equipment and new materials, the gradual establishment of a suitable for China's non-ferrous metal material system is a very important task in the future.
China is rich in non-ferrous metals and has a complete variety. As far as we know, 7 kinds of metals such as tungsten and rare earth are the first in the world, and the reserves of 5 kinds of lead, nickel, mercury, molybdenum and niobium are quite abundant. In mineral resources, nonferrous Metals is a big advantage of China. Before the founding of the PRC, China's non-ferrous metals industry is very backward, Nonferrous metals regardless of mine or factory, its equipment is very small, can only produce gold, silver, tin, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, mercury and so on, many non-ferrous metals can not be produced. Since 1949, China's non-ferrous metals industry has developed rapidly, has formed from commonly used non-ferrous metals to rare metals, varieties more complete, process more perfect production system. China's various non-ferrous metals mining, beneficiation, smelting, processing plants have a considerable scale, but compared with the world's advanced level, there is a certain gap. To this end, in the new non-ferrous metal mines, plant construction, Nonferrous metals but also face the existing mines, factories, technical transformation tasks, to give full play to the advantages of China's non-ferrous metal resources to meet the needs of national economic development.