Non-ferrous metals are mostly used after processing, so how to reasonably and effectively produce good performance, inexpensive non-ferrous materials to achieve the greatest social and economic benefits, is a very important issue. Along with the progress of science and technology and the development of national economy, the new requirements for the quantity, variety, quality and cost of nonferrous materials are constantly put forward, Nonferrous metals which not only require better performance of structural materials and functional materials, but also chemical composition, physical properties, microstructure, Crystal State, processing state, surface and dimensional accuracy as well as product reliability, stability and other requirements are increasingly high. In general, the production of non-ferrous materials is becoming large-scale, continuous, automation, standardization of the direction of development, Nonferrous metals which requires high-precision, high reliability of technology, equipment, control technology and finished product testing technology. Some new materials, such as semiconductor materials, composites, superconducting materials, new technologies such as powder metallurgy, surface treatment, etc. have been formed or are being developed into a technology field.
One of the characteristics of China's nonferrous metal resources is the complex ore, and some of the lower grade, not only a variety of non-ferrous metals are often symbiotic together, Nonferrous metals and some iron ore also contains a large number of non-ferrous metals, such as Panzhihua iron ore contains a large number of vanadium, titanium, Baotou iron ore contains a large number of rare earth and niobium, Nonferrous metals so research suitable for the characteristics of Chinese resources New technology, new equipment and new materials, the gradual establishment of a suitable for China's non-ferrous metal materials system is a very important task in the future.
Nonferrous Metals, also known as non-ferrous Metals, are collectively referred to as all metals, such as iron, manganese and chromium.
Nonferrous metals also include nonferrous alloys. Nonferrous alloys are alloys consisting of one or several other elements in a non-ferrous metal matrix (usually greater than 50%).
Nonferrous metals refer to all metals, such as iron, chromium and manganese, three kinds of metals. In 1958, China included iron, chromium and manganese in ferrous metals, and 64 kinds of metals other than iron, Nonferrous metals chromium and manganese were added to non-ferrous metals. These 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, Palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, Germanium, rhenium, lanthanum, cerium, Praseodymium, ND , Samarium, Europium, gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium.
Types of nonferrous metals
Historically, the materials used for production tools have been continuously improved and are closely related to the development of human society. Therefore, historians have used the material of utensils to mark the historical period, such as the Stone Age, the bronze, the iron and so on. By the end of 17th century by the human clear understanding and application of non-ferrous metals total 8 kinds. The Chinese nation has made significant contributions to the discovery and production of non-ferrous metals (see metallurgical history). After entering the 18th century, Nonferrous metals the rapid development of science and technology has promoted the discovery of many new non-ferrous metal elements. The above 64 kinds of nonferrous metals have been discovered in 18th century, in addition to 8 kinds of applications which were recognized before 17th century. 19th century discovered 39 kinds, enters 20th century, Nonferrous metals also discovers 4 kinds.
: Copper in non-ferrous Metals is one of the earliest metal materials used by mankind. Modern, nonferrous metals and their alloys have become indispensable structural materials and functional materials in the fields of machinery manufacturing industry, construction industry, electronics industry, aerospace and nuclear energy utilization.
: Copper in non-ferrous Metals is one of the earliest metal materials used by mankind. Modern, nonferrous metals and their alloys have become indispensable structural materials and functional materials in the fields of machinery manufacturing industry, construction industry, electronics industry, Nonferrous metals aerospace and nuclear energy utilization.
In practical applications, non-ferrous metals are usually classified into 5 categories:
1. Light metal. Density of less than 4,500 kilograms/cubic meters, such as aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium and so on.
2. Heavy metals. Density greater than 4,500 kilograms/M 3, such as copper, nickel, cobalt, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, mercury and so on.
3. Precious metals. The price is more expensive than usual metals, the crust abundance is low, the purification difficulty, such as gold, silver and platinum group metal.
4. Semi-metal. Property price between the metal and non-metallic, such as silicon, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, boron and so on.
5. Rare metals. Including rare light metals, such as lithium, rubidium, cesium, etc.
Rare refractory metals such as titanium, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, etc.
Rare and dispersed metals such as gallium, indium, Germanium and thallium;
Rare earth metals such as scandium, yttrium, lanthanum;
Radioactive metals, such as radium, francium, plutonium and uranium and thorium in elements of the Albanian system.
Nonferrous Metals usually refer to all metals except iron (sometimes removing manganese and chromium) and iron-based alloys. Non-ferrous metals can be classified into four categories:
1. Heavy metals: General density in 4.5g/cm3 above, such as copper, lead, zinc, etc.;
2. Light Metal: small density (0.53~4.5g/cm3), lively chemical properties, such as aluminum, magnesium and so on.
3. Precious metals: The Earth's crust content is small, the extraction difficulty, the price is high, the density is big, the chemical property is stable, such as gold, silver, platinum and so on;
4. Rare metals: such as tungsten, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, lanthanum, uranium and so on.