Nonferrous metals are the basic materials and important strategic material for national economy, People's daily life and defense industry, scientific and technological development. The modernization of agriculture, industrial modernization, national defense and the modernization of science and technology are inseparable from non-ferrous metals. such as aircraft, missiles, rockets, satellites, nuclear submarines and other sophisticated weapons and atomic energy, most of the components or components required for cutting-edge technologies such as television, communications, radar, and electronic computers are made of light metals and metal in non-ferrous metals, and there is no such non-ferrous metals as nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, etc. The use of non-ferrous metals in certain uses, such as the power industry, is considerable. Now many countries in the world, Nonferrous metals especially the industrialized countries, compete to develop nonferrous metals industry and increase the strategic reserve of nonferrous metals.
The narrow-sense non-ferrous metals are also called non ferrous metals, which are all metals, such as iron, manganese and chromium.
The generalized nonferrous metals also include nonferrous alloys. Nonferrous alloys are alloys consisting of one or several other elements in a non-ferrous metal matrix (usually greater than 50%).
Nonferrous metals refer to all metals, such as iron, chromium and manganese, three kinds of metals. In 1958, China included iron, chromium and manganese in ferrous metals, Nonferrous metals and 64 kinds of metals other than iron, chromium and manganese were added to non-ferrous metals. These 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, Palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, Germanium, rhenium, lanthanum, cerium, Praseodymium, ND , Samarium, Europium, gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Scandium, yttrium, silicon, boron, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, thorium.
A: Copper in non-ferrous Metals is one of the earliest metal materials used by mankind. Modern, nonferrous metals and their alloys have become indispensable structural materials and functional materials in the fields of machinery manufacturing industry, construction industry, electronics industry, Nonferrous metals aerospace and nuclear energy utilization.
B: In practical applications, non-ferrous metals are usually classified into 5 categories:
1. Light metal. Density of less than 4,500 kilograms/cubic meters, such as aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium and so on.
2. Heavy metals. Density greater than 4,500 kilograms/M 3, such as copper, nickel, cobalt, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, mercury and so on.
3. Precious metals. The price is more expensive than usual metals, Nonferrous metals the crust abundance is low, the purification difficulty, such as gold, silver and platinum group metal.
4. Semi-metal. Property price between the metal and non-metallic, such as silicon, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, boron and so on.
5. Rare metals. Including rare light metals, such as lithium, rubidium, cesium, etc.
Rare refractory metals such as titanium, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, etc.
Rare and dispersed metals such as gallium, indium, Germanium and thallium;
Rare earth metals such as scandium, yttrium, lanthanum;
Radioactive metals, such as radium, francium, Nonferrous metals plutonium and uranium and thorium in elements of the Albanian system. Nonferrous Metals usually refer to all metals except iron (sometimes removing manganese and chromium) and iron-based alloys. Non-ferrous metals can be classified into four categories:
1. Heavy metals: General density in 4.5g/cm3 above, such as copper, lead, zinc, etc.;
2. Light Metal: small density (0.53~4.5g/cm3), lively chemical properties, such as aluminum, magnesium and so on.
3. Precious metals: The Earth's crust content is small, the extraction difficulty, the price is high, the density is big, the chemical property is stable, such as gold, silver, platinum and so on;
4. Rare metals: such as tungsten, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, lanthanum, uranium and so on.
Nonferrous metals industry includes geological prospecting, mining, beneficiation, Nonferrous metals smelting and processing departments. In order to get 1 tons of non-ferrous metals, the ore is generally low in nonferrous metals, which are often mined into tons of minerals. So mine is the important foundation of developing nonferrous metal industry. In nonferrous metal ores, there are many kinds of metals symbiosis, so it is necessary to reasonably extract and recycle useful components and make comprehensive use of natural resources rationally. Many chemical products, such as rare metals, precious metals and sulfuric acid, are recovered in the process of handling non-ferrous ores or intermediate products as well as slag and soot. Non-ferrous Metal production process usually produces a large number of waste gas, Nonferrous metals waste water and waste residue, which contains a variety of useful components, sometimes containing toxic substances, some non-ferrous metals are also toxic. Therefore, in the process of producing non-ferrous metals, we must pay attention to comprehensive utilization and environmental protection. In addition, compared with the production of steel, generally speaking, non-ferrous metal production needs more energy. According to statistics, such as from the production of iron per ton of steel consumption of 100, magnesium is 1127, aluminum is 767, nickel is 455, copper is 352, zinc is 206. Therefore, in the non-ferrous metal industry, the problem of reducing energy consumption is very prominent. Nonferrous metals In the process of mining, beneficiation, smelting, processing and recycling of nonferrous metals, there are many kinds of extraction methods to be selected. As far as smelting process is concerned, it is usually divided into fire metallurgy, hydrometallurgical metallurgy and electric metallurgy. Fire metallurgy generally has the ability to deal with fine ore, can use the sulfur in sulfide ore combustion heat, can economically recover precious metals, rare metals and other advantages, but often difficult to achieve good environmental protection. Hydrometallurgy is often used to deal with polymetallic ores, low-grade ores and refractory ores, while electric metallurgy is suitable for the production of more active metals such as aluminum, magnesium and sodium. These methods are intended to be used or used in combination with the selected mineral composition. In order to strengthen the smelting process of nonferrous metals, the development of a series of new technologies, new methods and equipment, such as high-pressure leaching, fluidized roasting, organic solvent extraction, ion exchange, metal heat reduction, regional melting, vacuum metallurgy, Jet metallurgy, plasma metallurgy, Nonferrous metals chlorinated metallurgy and continuous casting, such as static pressure processing, diffusion welding, Superplastic molding, etc., greatly enriched the theory and technology of metallurgy, and continuously promoted the development of non-ferrous metal production.
Non-ferrous metals are mostly used after processing, so how to reasonably and effectively produce good performance, inexpensive non-ferrous materials to achieve the greatest social and economic benefits, is a very important issue. With the progress of science and technology and the development of national economy, Nonferrous metals the new requirements for the quantity, variety, quality and cost of nonferrous materials are put forward. The requirements of chemical composition, physical properties, microstructure, Crystal State, processing state, surface and dimension precision, reliability and stability of the product are more and more high. In general, the production of non-ferrous materials is becoming large-scale, continuous, automation, standardization of the direction of development, Nonferrous metals which requires high-precision, high reliability of technology, equipment, control technology and finished product testing technology. Some new materials, such as semiconductor materials, composites, superconducting materials, new technologies such as powder metallurgy, surface treatment, etc. have been formed or are being developed into a technology field.